A set of rules we use to communicate with computers and to write programs. Designed to be either interpreted (directly output using an interpreter, e.g. Lisp) or compiled (transformed into a runnable form different with every machine model (using a compiler) which is then ran, e.g. C). Both is possible with some. A programming language is defined by a specification, which outlines its syntax (how exactly it is written) and semantics (rules).
Basic concepts and foundations in a programming language - e.g. the functional paradigm in programming is based on lambda calculus which performs calculations by combining pure mathematical functions -- this then shapes the language for mostly writing mathematical functions and comes with the natural philosophy of subsequently viewing everything as a function, even loops or numbers.
language | year | # of specification pages | notes |
---|---|---|---|
Assembly | 1947 | - | differs with every device model |
Lisp | 1958 | 50 | functional, list-based |
Forth | 1970 | 251 | stack-based |
C | 1972 | 450 | most used |
Brainless | 1993 | 1 | esoteric |
comun | 2022 | 10 |