Programming Language

A set of rules we use to communicate with computers and to write programs. Designed to be either interpreted (directly output using an interpreter, e.g. Lisp) or compiled (transformed into a runnable form different with every machine model (using a compiler) which is then ran, e.g. C). Both is possible with some. A programming language is defined by a specification, which outlines its syntax (how exactly it is written) and semantics (rules).


Basic concepts and foundations in a programming language - e.g. the functional paradigm in programming is based on lambda calculus which performs calculations by combining pure mathematical functions -- this then shapes the language for mostly writing mathematical functions and comes with the natural philosophy of subsequently viewing everything as a function, even loops or numbers.

Notable programming languages:

language year # of specification pages notes
Assembly 1947 - differs with every device model
Lisp 1958 50 functional, list-based
Forth 1970 251 stack-based
C 1972 450 most used
Brainless 1993 1 esoteric
comun 2022 10

Computers, Esolang, Programming & hacking