Binary

Binary, or the base 2 numeral system, is a system of noting down numbers only using 0 and 1 (unlike the 0 - 9 of our, decimal system). A digit which can only have the value of 0 or 1 is boolean.

Decimal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9... 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, [...] 98, 99... 100, 101, 102, 103...

Binary: 0, 1... 10, 11... 100, 101, 110, 111... 1000

All home computers store their data in binary notation, as it is the simplest and cheapest method. A single unit of data that holds this value in a computer is a bit. An 8-bit computer, for example, deals with 8 digits of data (00000000 - 11111111), which can represent 256 different values - this is why such computers have this limit set on amount of the color palette and other things.

        0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
        |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
amount:128 64 32 16 8  4  2  1

Example reading of binary number 101010:

        1   0   1   0     
        |   |   |   |     
amount: 8 + 0 + 2 + 0 = 10

Two's complement

A system of encoding numbers in binary that incorporates negative numbers.

000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111                   

  0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7 - unsigned        

  0   1   2   3  -4  -3  -2  -1 - two's complement