Logic & Algorithm

All dogs have fur.
My pet is a dog.
--> My pet has fur.

The process of using available information to form new conclusions.


Algorithm

     -------    
     |Start|    
     -------    
        |       
 Cond  / \  Cond
      /   \     
 ------- -------
 |State| |State|
 ------- -------

Exact step-by-step description of a method for solving a problem. The term is mostly used in programming, but it is not limited to computers, cooking recipes are algorithms for example.

They may include sequences (actions), selections (conditions - if X is true do action Y) and iterations (repetition). In programming and other fields that require complex algorithms, these steps are further combined into subroutines (smaller sequences), macros (bundled commands) or switch statements (selections with more than two possibilites). Algorithms may make use of variables - possibly changing values. Algorithms also may be expressed in other mediums than text.

A flowchart is a graphical algorithm. It starts with some initial occurence and then branches into the possible results based on the conditions/your actions.


Fractal, Cellular automaton


Expression

operands
|   |
V   V
5 + 3
  ^  
  |  
operator

An algorithm written to use an operator (action) on operands (things to be changed - variables.


Knowledge