Animation is an artistic technique of creating moving images, usually from still images. An animated film is a cartoon. The three main types of animation: frame-by-frame, stop-motion, and computer-generated (CG). A single image of an animation is called a frame.


Minimalist Techniques


A wheel with images - usually paper which is quickly turned. This technique has been used since the beginning of animation. There are ancient clay pots which were meant to spin around and act in a similar fashion, but it can be made with a pencil and paper.


Kinegram uses a line screen that is moved among a small number of interlaced frames, covering others and revealing one at a time.


A flipbook or kineograph is a small booklet with a series of images which are quickly flipped.

Traditional Techniques

Stop motion

Stop motion makes use of real-life photographs rather than drawings. Claymation is a subset of it.

Computer Generated Imagery (CGI)

2D animation and 3D animation.

Image extract of ancient 'animation' clay pot

GIFs: Ancient clay pot animation simulation, Space travel flipbook (without visible page turns), Phenatistiscope from above

Video of kinegram in use